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~ ADHD ~

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder marked by its observable behavioral manifestations. The continuum of the symptoms is not always clear and ADHD may or may not continue into adulthood.

Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have problems due to a short attention span, impulsivity, and/or hyperactivity. Children with ADHD often have difficulties at home, during school, or with other children. For instance, children with ADHD may not complete tasks, follow rules, or get along with friends.

Children and adolescents with ADHD show inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsive actions that are not normal for their age. Inattention includes difficulty focusing, being easily distracted, disorganization, and forgetfulness.

There are three types of ADHD, which are listed below, along with their symptoms:

1. ADHD Predominately Inattentive:

 

A child with this type of ADHD frequently display at least six of the following symptoms:

 

  • Does not pay close attention to details or make careless mistakes

  • Has difficulty paying attention, though can "hyperfocus" on tasks of their own interest for an unusual length of time

  • Does not appear to listen, when spoken to directly

  • Struggles with following instructions or finishing tasks on time

  • Has trouble initiating and organizing tasks and activities, and  managing time

  • Avoids or dislikes tasks that require focused mental effort, such as homework

  • Loses things needed for tasks or activities, for example, toys, school assignments, pencils

  • Forgetful in daily activities, such as forgetting to do chores

  • Is easily distracted


 

2. ADHD Predominately Hyperactive-Impulsive:
 

A child with this type of ADHD frequently displays at least six of the following symptoms:

 

  • Fidgets with hands or feet

  • Has difficulty staying seated

  • Runs about or climbs excessively

  • Has difficulty working or playing quietly

  • Acts “motorized”, is restless and has trouble being still.

  • Talks a lot

  • Blurts out answers to questions or finishes other people’s sentences

  • Has difficulty waiting or taking turns

  • Interrupts or intrude upon others

3. ADHD Combined:

 

The child is hyperactive and has trouble paying attention. The child frequently shows at least six symptoms from both of the lists above.

To be diagnosed with ADHD, children must show some symptoms before they are 12 years old. They also must have difficulties in at least two settings, such as at home and at school.

There is no single test to diagnose ADHD. The best way to find out whether your child has ADHD is to have him or her see a pediatrician, psychiatrist, psychologist, neurologist, or social worker familiar with ADHD. A visit with the doctor will help to diagnose the child and also determine if the child may have other conditions.

Your child’s visit to the doctor should include a look at:

 

  • Medical history

  • Growth and development history

  • Success/challenges in school

  • Other areas of performance (i.e., interactions with family and peers)

  • Family history

  • Information from parents and teachers

Effective Therapies for ADHD
 

Children with ADHD usually need more than one type of treatment to meet their needs. Medication and/or behavior management training for parents and teachers have been shown to be most effective. Your child’s doctor or a psychiatrist can prescribe medicine.

Psychologists, counselors, and social workers can help with the child’s behavior. You can also talk to your child’s teacher, school counselor, or school psychologist about support for your child at school.

Behavioral approaches and non-medical interventions

 

  • Behavioral parent training (BPT)

  • Behavioral classroom management (BCM)

  • Behavioral peer interventions (BPI)

  • Combined behavior management interventions

  • Cognitive skills training

 

Possible coexisting conditions

 

ADHD doesn't cause other psychological or developmental problems. However, children with ADHD are more likely than others to also have conditions such as:

 

  • Learning disabilities such as dyslexia, dyscalculia, and auditory processing disorder

  • Sensory Integration Disorder

  • Anxiety disorders

  • Depression

What is Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)?